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performance *deadlock There are four necessary conditions for a deadlock to occur, known as the Coffman conditions from their first description in a 1971 article by E. G. Coffman.

1. Mutual exclusion condition: a resource that cannot be used by more than one process at a time
2. Hold and wait condition: processes already holding resources may request new resources
3. No preemption condition: No resource can be forcibly removed from a process holding it, resources can be released only by the explicit action of the process
4. Circular wait condition: two or more processes form a circular chain where each process waits for a resource that the next process in the chain holds