en.wikipedia.org Арифметическое кодирование
Не обошлось без патентных троллей.
At least one significant compression software program, bzip2, deliberately discontinued the use of arithmetic coding in favor of Huffman coding due to the perceived patent situation at the time. Also, encoders and decoders of the JPEG file format, which has options for both Huffman encoding and arithmetic coding, typically only support the Huffman encoding option, which was originally because of patent concerns; the result is that nearly all JPEG images in use today use Huffman encoding although JPEG's arithmetic coding patents have expired due to the age of the JPEG standard (the design of which was approximately completed by 1990). There are some archivers like PackJPG, that can losslessly convert Huffman encoded jpegs to jpegs with arithmetic coding (with custom file name .pjg), showing up to 25% size saving.